Description of the disease
Meningococcal infection is an acute infectious disease caused by meningococcus, which affects the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx (nasopharyngitis), the membrane of the brain (meningitis), can cause septicemia. There are lightning forms, there is a high probability of a fatal outcome. In addition, common media. The method of transmission is airborne. Children under 5 years of age are most often at risk, but everyone is susceptible to infection.
Treatment is mandatory hospitalization and antibacterial therapy, symptomatic treatment is also carried out.
Prevention is vaccination, which provides protection for 5 years.
The incubation period is 1-20 days, then the following symptoms appear: high fever, chills, muscle pain; photophobia and eye pain; meningeal symptoms: stiffness of the occipital muscles, symptoms of Kernig, Brudzinsky; in some cases, the patient takes a characteristic "lying dog" pose (lying on his side, head thrown back, legs bent at the knees); a hemorrhagic rash (microhemorrhages) that protrudes above the surface of the skin, is localized in any places, sometimes present on the mucous membranes: in the mouth and on the conjunctiva, sclera. The elements of the rash are dense to the touch, often have a star shape.
It is necessary to diagnose the infection as early as possible, in the presence of rashes in the first 12 hours after the onset of the disease. Diagnosis is made with the help of: clinical blood analysis, examination of cerebrospinal fluid, detection of meningococcus in biomaterial, detection of antibodies in the patient's blood, and detection of meningococcus DNA in blood or cerebrospinal fluid by PCR.